Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.

The exact cause of PCOS is unknown.

• Irregular periods. Infrequent, irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles al signs,
• Excess facial and body hair (hirsutism)
• Severe acne and male-pattern baldness with hair thinning.
• Insulin resistance leading to increased blood sugar and causing diabetes
• Mood changes
• Dark spots on skin called acanthosis nigricans
• Polycystic ovaries containing follicles that surround the eggs.
• Obesity and difficulty in losing weight
• Difficulty in conceiving and infertility
• Decreased sex drive
• Fatigue, depression, anxiety
• Sleep apnea
• High cholesterol
• Pelvic pain

Complications of PCOS can include:
• Infertility
• Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure
• Miscarriage or premature birth
• Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis — a severe liver inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the liver
• Metabolic syndrome — a cluster of conditions including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that significantly increase your risk of cardiovascular disease
• Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes
• Sleep apnea
• Depression, anxiety and eating disorders
• Abnormal uterine bleeding
• Cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer)
• Obesity is associated with PCOS and can worsen complications of the disorder.

• There's no test to definitively diagnose PCOS.
• Medical history, including your menstrual periods and weight changes.
• physical exam will include checking for signs of excess hair growth
• Blood tests.
• An ultrasound of pelvis and transvaginal ultrasound

• PCOS treatment focuses on managing your individual concerns, such as infertility, hirsutism, acne or obesity.
• Lifestyle changes
• Exercise
• Weight loss
• Balanced low fat, calorie restricted diet.

• Various medicines are available for treatment of PCOS however they are completely depends on your individual case.
• Metformin for in which is also used to regularise blood sugar
• Combination birth control pills.
• Clomiphene (Clomid). This oral anti-estrogen medication is taken during the first part of your menstrual cycle.

Gonadotropins. These hormone medications are given by injection.

Spironolactone (Aldactone). This medication blocks the effects of androgen on the skin. Spironolactone can cause birth defect, so effective contraception is required while taking this medication. It isn't recommended if you're pregnant or planning to become pregnant.

Eflornithine (Vaniqa). This cream can slow facial hair growth in women.

Electrolysis. A tiny needle is inserted into each hair follicle. The needle emits a pulse of electric current to damage and eventually destroy the follicle. You might need multiple treatments.


It is a disease in which bones become brittle and fragile due to low bone mass It is “silent disease” because you cannot feel your bones getting weaker, and many people don't even know they have the condition until after they break a bone and develop fractures, particularly of the hips, spine, and wrists.

Causes of Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis develops when there's an abnormal imbalance between bone resorption and formation — that is, resorption occurs too quickly, or formation too slowly. Women experience the most bone loss during the first few years after menopause

Risk Factors for Osteoporosis
• Being a woman, particularly in your postmenopausal years
• Smoking
• Excessive alcohol consumption
• deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D
• Lack of exercise
• Long-term use of certain drugs, including glucocorticoids and some anticonvulsants
• Hormonal disease

Osteopenia Often Precedes Osteoporosis
Bone mineral density that is lower than normal but not low enough to be considered osteoporosis is called osteopenia.Osteopenia shares the same risk factors as osteoporosis, and it raises the risk of developing osteoporosis. But not everyone who has osteopenia goes on to develop osteoporosis.Osteoporosis Symptoms and ComplicationsIn its early stages, osteoporosis generally causes no symptoms later causes back pain, loss of height, and a stooped posture. Later leads in to fracture which happens due to minor falls or accidents. This can reduce mobility and affect your emotional state, resulting in depression and anxiety.

 Treatment for Osteoporosis
• Fosamax (alendronate) Reclast (zoledronic acid) Actonel (risedronate) Boniva (ibandronate) Prolia (denosumab) Calcitonin
• Osteoporosis Prevention
• Not Smoking Cigarettes
• Avoiding Drinking Alcohol in Excess
• Healthy Diet rich in calcium and vitamin D
• Exercise